Safeguarding Children

Safeguarding arrangements are underpinned by two key principles: 

  • Safeguarding is everyone’s responsibility. For services to be effective each professional and organisation should play their full part; and 
  • A child-centred approach. For services to be effective they should be based on a clear understanding of the needs and views of children. 

Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children is defined as: 

  • protecting children from maltreatment; 
  • preventing impairment of children’s health or development; 
  • ensuring that children are growing up in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care; and 
  • taking action to enable all children to have the best life chances. 

Child protection is part of safeguarding and promoting welfare. It refers to the activity that is undertaken to protect specific children who are suffering, or are likely to suffer, significant harm. See glossary below for definitions of types of abuse 

Glossary of Terms Working Together to Safeguard Children 2018 

NHS South East London CCG (Southwark Borough) recognises the paramount importance of safeguarding children and that all children have a right to protection from abuse and neglect. We are committed to child protection procedures and working alongside allied professional bodies including Southwark Safeguarding Children Partnership, Social Care, Education and Police. 

Primary Care and GP practices are well placed to respond to the needs to Children and Families, as a universal service with duty of care to both the child and adult in their parenting/caring role. We hold both the short term and longer-term view for families and situations.  

Southwark Safeguarding Children & Young People Key Contacts For Primary Care ​ 

Refer all cases of suspected child abuse (neglect, physical, emotional, sexual) via MASH except: 

Acute injuries – liaise with on-call consultant paediatrician at local hospital 

At immediate risk of harm – contact the police on 999​ 

Use the Southwark Safeguarding Children Board Multi-Agency Threshold Guide to support referral


Children’s Social Care MASH 
Multi Agency Safeguarding Hub – Sumner House 
Refer over the phone (if urgent Child Protection) or by using the MASH Inter-Agency Referral Form. Referrals over the phone must be followed up in writing within 48 hours 
020 7525 1921  
020 7525 5000 (out of hours) 
Fax: 020 7525 7992  
Family Early Help 
For families in need of increased support not meeting threshold for social care intervention 
Phone for advice or refer using the  Early Help Inter-Agency Referral Form
020 7525 2714 
Fax: 020 7525 2670 

Advice and guidance

Social Worker Consultation 
To discuss cases of concern if unsure if thresholds for referral are met. 
Access to MASH health advisors also available 
020 7525 1921 
Safeguarding Specialist Nurses 
On-call mobile available 09:00-17:00 
07789 741518 
Community Paediatrics/Named Doctor/ 
Designated Doctor 
For community paediatric advice on medical aspects to a safeguarding case or concern 
020 3049 8010 
Looked After Children Team Sunshine House ​020 3049 8037 
Designated Nurse for Safeguarding Children 
Michele Sault 
020 7525 4529 
07554 407 823 
Named GP for Safeguarding Children 
Dr Shimona Gayle 

Key local agencies

Parental Mental Health Team 
Chaucer Resource Centre-for parents experiencing or who are at risk of experiencing a mental health problem and have a child aged under 5 years 
020 3228 9800 

Parental Mental Health Team Information
Domestic Abuse Team: 
SOLACE Women’s Aid 
(abuse: emotional, physical, financial etc.) 
020 7593 1290 
Sexual Abuse : The Havens 
for children of all ages and adults 24/7 
020 3299 1599 
Private Fostering team:  Southwark Children’s Social Care 020 7525 7972 
07539 346 808​ 
CGL- Hidden Harms Service For child/young person 5-18yrs affected by parental/guardian substance misuse 020 8629 2348 
07778 356 726 
School Nursing Team 
Central Hub for the 4 locality teams 
Contact with name of child’s school 
​020 3049 4777 

Referral to School Nursing September 2020 
School Nurses Lambeth Southwark Allocation March 2020
Health Visiting Teams 020 3049 8166 

Evelina London Health Visitor and Community Nursing Teams Southwark April 2021
Local Authority Designated Officer (LADO
See LADO section for more information
Eva Simcock   
020 7525 0689
07943 076 608   

NEW Health Visitor-GP liaison protocol

GP practices are asked: 

  • To schedule meeting dates and times in advance with all communication going through team and nurse managers, according to locality.  
  • To share list of children and families to be discussed in advance of meeting to allow Health Visitors to gather updates from colleagues. Health Visitors will update practices on local service developments e.g. E-red book update and local children centre provision. 
  • To provide list of children under 5 years old newly registered, in response to examples of families identified via MASH/ MARAC referrals who have been in borough for extended periods but have not been known to the Health Visiting service. 

Useful documents

Southwark Safeguarding Children Board Multi-Agency Threshold Guide 

MASH Inter-Agency Referral Form

Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub (MASH) Information for Professionals

Early Help Inter-Agency Referral Form

Family Early Help Flowchart for Primary Healthcare Workers

Family Early Help Restructure – Briefing for GPs – December 2019

Children’s Centres in Southwark

CAMHS Emergency and Developing Crisis Protocol – August 2021

Evelina London Health Visiting and GP Liaison Communication Protocol – April 2021

Evelina London Health Visitor and Community Nursing Teams Southwark – April 2021

Parental Mental Health Team Information

Referral to School Nursing Sept 2020 

School Nurses Lambeth and Southwark Allocation March 2020

Solace Southwark (SASS) Referral Form

Solace Southwark Poster

Under 16 Attended Consultation With Protocol

Guidance on Information Sharing with link to summary from myth busting guide from Working Together 2018 and suggested wording for incomplete information requests is available below. All requests for information should contain context as to concern in order that we can review our records accordingly. 

Information Sharing and Safeguarding Children

Child Protection Case Conferences – QUA GP Forum – December 2019

Multi-Agency Child Protection Conference Report Template


Children Act  Parental Consent Required 
Request for information    Information gathering from multiple agencies to assess level of concern Yes 
Child in Need:  Section 17  Concerns about reasonable level of health or development, which is likely to be significantly or further impaired, without the provision of services; or a child who is disabled Yes  
Child Protection:  Section 47   Concerns about maltreatment where there is reasonable cause to suspect that a child is suffering, or is likely to suffer, significant harm No* 

*Good practice to discuss with a parent/carer who has parental responsibility unless this would put child/ren at risk or jeopardise an investigation 

Only share information deemed relevant to case. Remember that many professionals reading the reports will not be medical, so ensure that risks and significance of medical history are clear.–2 

Information of factors with potential to impact parenting capacity should be considered –    

General Medical Council (2018), Protecting Children and Young People: The responsibilities of all doctors Paragraphs 2, 32-38 

Key Principles of information sharing 

  • Necessary and proportionate
  • Relevant
  • Adequate
  • Accurate
  • Timely
  • Secure
  • Record

Record Keeping for Child Protection  

Child Protection Reports are as important as records of serious physical illness and should be recorded in the same way and with the same degree of permanence.  

  • All reports should be scanned onto the relevant child’s records.  
  • Appropriate coding and templates should be used in Active and Past Problem Lists and priority lists  
  • Child’s records should be linked in some way to parents even if not living at the same address, siblings and others in household by use of appropriate templates and codes.  
  • Snomed codes expressing that a child is on a Child Protection Plan should be entered into notes of all individuals living at same address.  

It is vital that when a child who is or has been on a Child Protection Plan moves to another area that the full clinical record including Case Conference Reports be sent to the next GP. Therefore they must NOT be kept separate or isolated from the child’s written or computer records. 

Record Keeping for Child Protection Information and Case Conference Reports

Online Services for patients under 16 years and cases with safeguarding concerns

Particular concerns surround: 

  • Risk of coercion in domestic abuse relationships, thereby sharing access to notes against a person’s will 
  • Active child protection and safeguarding cases 
  • Third party access by an authorised third person, consider for family members with language barriers 
  • Child proxy access and the point at which it is unsuitable for parents to access their child’s notes. 

EMIS tools have now been developed to facilitate ‘child proxy access’ for parents with age maturity notifications. 
Automated emails are sent 3 months before and on patient’s 11th notify that proxy access will be switched off. 
Recommendation stands that access should not be given between ages of 11 and 16 years. 

Online service guides are available at the site 

Where safeguarding concerns exist and we feel it is not in the best interest for the patient or family at that time, access should be declined with reason documented in the notes 

All primary care staff should familiarise themselves with the online visibility functions available within EMIS. 

Online learning toolkits are available through RCGP and NHS England which hosts a useful FAQ document and training slides for practice use in the webinar section. 

Further guidance from November 2019 available from NHS England 

Patient Online Record Access Information Sheet for Primary Care – December 2020

GMC Protection Children and Young People 

A ‘person with parental responsibility’ means someone with the rights and responsibilities that parents have in law for their child, including the right to consent to medical treatment for them, up to the age of 18 years in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and up to 16 years in Scotland. 

Mothers and married fathers have parental responsibility, and so do unmarried fathers of children registered since 15 April 2002 in Northern Ireland, since 1 December 2003 in England and Wales and since 4 May 2006 in Scotland, as long as the father is named on the child’s birth certificate. 

An unmarried father whose child’s birth was registered before these dates, or afterwards if they are not named on the child’s birth certificate does not automatically have parental responsibility. He can gain parental responsibility by reregistering a birth, by entering into a parental responsibility agreement with the child’s mother or by getting a parental responsibility order from the courts. Married step-parents and registered civil partners can gain parental responsibility in the same ways. 

Parents do not lose parental responsibility if they divorce. If a child is taken into local authority care under a care order, their parents share parental responsibility with the local authority. If the child is in voluntary care, the local authority has no parental responsibility. Parents lose parental responsibility if a child is adopted. Parental responsibility can be restricted by a court order. 

Guide on Parental responsibility and consent from BMA

Southwark Safeguarding Children’s Partnership (SSCP) holds responsibility for co-ordinating all safeguarding and child protection activity in the borough 

  • Policy and guidance 
  • Child Safeguarding Practice reviews 
  • Child Death Overview Panel 
  • Learning and improvement 
  • Raise local awareness 

For more information please see the Southwark Safeguarding Boards website.  

Child Safeguarding Practice review- formerly Serious Case reviews/Local Learning Reviews are commissioned when a child suffers serious injury of death as a results of child abuse of neglect. 

Understanding not only what happened but also why things happened as they did can help to improve our response in the future. Understanding the impact that the actions of different organisations and agencies had on the child’s life, and on the lives of his or her family, and whether or not different approaches or actions may have resulted in a different outcome, is essential to improve our collective knowledge. It is in this way that we can make good judgments about what might need to change at a local or national level.  

The purpose of reviews of serious child safeguarding cases, at both local and national level, is to identify improvements to be made to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. Learning is relevant locally, but it has a wider importance for all practitioners working with children and families and for the government and policy-makers. Understanding whether there are systemic issues, and whether and how policy and practice need to change, is critical to the system being dynamic and self-improving.  

The process is set out in statutory guidance, Chapter 4 Working Together to Safeguard Children

Any practice with a case will be supported by the safeguarding CCG team, throughout from initially case review to learning and recommendations.  

Summary and key learning from recent reviews 

Child T – a multi-agency review,15 year old girl, case of CSE, 

Key learning on consistent documentation of adult accompanying children, giving children opportunity to consult alone, opportunity to identify vulnerable patients at registration and identity over use of OOH services.

Child T – Brief Summary


Child U- Serious Case Review, 16 year old boy killed following knife attack Sept 2015 

Key learning on recognising impact of background of childhood trauma. 

Child U – Brief Summary

Child U – Serious Case Review – Key Messages and Recommendations

Child V-Multi-agency review as possible ‘near miss’ for baby on Child in Need plan as parents disabled, with non-accidental injuries 

Key learning on ensuing medical records for children contain details on known parental vulnerabilities. 

Child V – Brief Summary

Child W-A multi-agency review following serious incident, 6 year old who told staff in his primary school he wanted to die, rapid escalation in behavioural issues.  

Presented to the GP on a friday afternoon directed by the school following a significant episode, deemed a suicidal attempt. Child W’s mother is a care leaver who became pregnant at age 16 in foster care with additional vulnerabilities. We discussed events prior to his admission, the admission itself and his discharge to a full care order in a specialist residential unit. 

Key learning on the emerging and developing crisis CAMHS protocol, recognition of parental vulnerability and record keeping.


Child A and B were the subject of a multi-agency thematic review and presented at a GP forum January 2021, presentation attached, with backgrounds detailing significant childhood trauma. 

Key Learning- recognition of impact of childhood trauma and early neglect, all identified concerns regarding serious youth violence, gang involvement meets threshold for MASH referral.

Child A and B – Thematic Learning Review – GP Forum – January 2021

Child C-local learning review following death of Child C, 25 w old baby. Family new to Southwark during mother’s pregnancy, family previously known to social care services in other  London area 

Key learning- threshold for urgent MASH referral met, had previous children social care involvement been known, important of coding child protection information in parents’ notes, risks around transient, sometimes deliberately evasive families, imports of routine enquiry as to mood and domestic abuse during post-natal review.

Child C – Safeguarding Forum – May 2020

See section in Adult Safeguarding for details of our commissioned service Solace Women’s AidIris Programme and MARAC (Multi-agency Risk Assessment Conferences) for high-risk cases of Domestic Abuse. Further resources available through Safelives with DASH risk assessment tool

All identified case of domestic abuse and violence within a family environment, whether child present or not, meets threshold for a MASH referral. Remember you can call MASH for a Duty Social Worker Consultation to discuss individual cases. See Multi-Agency Threshold Guide for further details. 

Domestic Violence and Abuse NICE guidance available here 

Routine Enquiry: in antenatal, postnatal, reproductive care, sexual health, alcohol or drug misuse, mental health, children’s and vulnerable adults’ consultations, trained staff should ask service users whether they have experienced domestic violence and abuse. This should be a routine part of good clinical practice, even where there are no indicators of such violence and abuse.  

Yuva is a new service, working with young people (age 11– 25) who have used violent or controlling behaviours towards their parents /carers or towards their girl/boyfriends. They aim to help young people to look at their abusive behaviour and find safe, non-abusive alternatives. 

Read more about Yuva on the Domestic Violence Intervention Project website and in the Yuva Young People’s Service leaflet.

Contact Yuva on 020 8222 8281 or at 

All newly identified recent and historic cases of FGM for a child aged under 18 years must be referred to Children Social Care via MASH and the Police calling 101 as part of the FGM Mandatory Reporting Duty 2015 

FGM comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. It has no health benefits and harms girls and women in many ways. It involves removing and damaging health and normal female genital tissue, and hence interferes with the natural function of girls’ and women’s bodies. The practice causes severe pain and has several immediate and long-term health consequences, including difficulties in child birth also causing dangers to the child.  

Under the Female Genital Mutilation Act 2003 it is an offence for any person (regardless of their nationality or residence status) to: 

  • Perform FGM in England, Wales and Northern Ireland 
  • Assist the carrying out of FGM in England, Wales and Northern Ireland 
  • Assist a girl to carry out FGM on herself in England, Wales and Northern Ireland; and 
  • Assist (from England, Wales and Northern Ireland) a non- UK person to carry out FGM outside the UK on a UK national or permanent UK resident. 
  • Perform FGM abroad 
  • Assist FGM carried out abroad by a UK national or permanent UK resident 
  • Assist a girl to perform FGM on herself outside the UKAssist (from outside the UK) FGM carried out abroad by a non-UK person on a girl or woman who is a UK national or permanent UK resident. 

Online FGM training and resources

Key documents

Female Genital Mutilation Risk Indication System (FGM RIS) EMIS

Asking Difficult Questions – Practical Advice for All Professionals

Female Genital Mutilation Medical Protection Society Guidance

Sexual exploitation of children and young people under 18 involves exploitative situations, contexts and relationships where the young person (or third person/s) receive ‘something’ (e.g. food, accommodation, drugs, alcohol, cigarettes, affection, gifts, money) as a result of them performing, and/or another or others performing on them, sexual activities. 

CSE can occur through the use of technology without the child’s immediate recognition; for example being persuaded to post images on the internet / mobile phones without immediate payment or gain. 

Violence, coercion and intimidation are common. Involvement in exploitative relationships is characterised by the child’s or young person’s limited availability of choice as a result of their social, economic or emotional vulnerability. 

A common feature of CSE is that the child or young person does not recognise the coercive nature of the relationship and does not see themselves as a victim of exploitation. 

Because of the universal nature of most health provision, health professionals may often be the first to be aware that a child may be involved, or be at risk of becoming involved, in sexual exploitation. Children involved in sexual exploitation are likely to need a range of services, including advice and counselling for harm minimisation, health promotion, advice on sexually transmitted diseases and HIV. 

All identified and suspected cases of Child Sexual Exploitation meets threshold for a MASH referral. Remember you can call MASH for a Duty Social Worker Consultation to discuss individual cases. See Multi-Agency Threshold Guide for further details. 

Further information is available from the London Child Protection Procedures 

NHS England Pocket Guide available for Health Care Staff. 

Stop it Now! UK and Ireland is a useful website for anyone with concerns about child sexual abuse. 

CEOP helps keep children and young people safe from sexual abuse and grooming online. They offer help and advice to parents and carers 

See ‘Child Safeguarding Practice review- formerly Serious Case reviews section’- Child T 

Key documents

Introduction to Child Health Exploitation – Southwark Health Forum 2021

Spotting the Signs of Child Health Exploitation

The term Community Harm and Exploitation  encompasses Youth Violence, Child Sexual Exploitation, Criminal Exploitation and County lines 

Youth violence and knife crime is a key part of the Southwark Safeguarding Children Board’s agenda for 2021/22 under the Community Harm and Exploitation work. 

All identified case of concern regarding gang affiliation, criminal exploitation and violent crime in a child <18 years meets threshold for a MASH referral. Remember you can call MASH for a Duty Social Worker Consultation to discuss individual cases. See Multi-Agency Threshold Guide for further details. 

Southwark’s Information, Advice and Guidance Pilot team available to contact directly, providing support pilot for parents and young people currently experiencing harm or exploitation.  

Presentation on Southwark Joint Strategic needs assessment 2019 and Southwark’s Extended learning review available in documents 

See ‘Child Safeguarding Practice review- formerly Serious Case reviews section’- Child U, A and B 

Key documents

Information, Advice and Guidance for Parents and Young People – Harm and Exploitation

Community Harm and Exploitation Information for GPs

Public Health Youth Violence Prevention – Southwark JSNA 2019

Southwark Extended Learning Review 2019

NHS England Violence Reduction Training – October 2020

Avenues of support

A recent report called “keeping kids safe” by the Children’s Commissioner estimates that there are 27,000 children across the country who identify as a gang member; far more then previously thought. One of the most important things that GPs can do is to chat to parents if they think that a child is at risk of exploitation. Parents Against Child Exploitation (PACE) has produced a guide which gives GPs ideas about how to initiate such a conversation. The Home Office explain here exactly what the options are once a risk of child exploitation has been identified. In Southwark we have the expert support of Barnardos and the Children’s Society 

Fearless is the youth branch of independent charity, Crimestoppers, where young people can access non-judgemental information and advice about crime and criminality. 

They provide a safe place to give information about crime 100% anonymously. When giving information through their online form, no personal details are taken and their anonymity promise has never been broken. Professionals’ page available here

Be Fearless Against Crime in London information sheet

The National Child Safeguarding Practice review panel recent publication ‘It was hard to escape- safeguarding children at risk from criminal exploitation available here. 

Safer London’s Webinar Dec 2020 series available here

Private fostering is where a child, under the age of 16 (under 18 if disabled) who is cared for, or proposed to be cared for, and provided with accommodation by someone other than; a parent, a person who is not a parent but who has parental responsibility, a close relative i.e. an aunt, uncle, sibling, grandparent, step parent, which excludes a cousin, a great uncle/aunt and great grandparents or a friend/neighbour for a period of more than 28 days. 

A relative is defined in the Children Act 1989 as a grandparent, uncle or aunt (whether by full-blood, half-blood or by marriage or civil partnership), sibling or step-parent. 

Key points of identification are patient registration, immunisations and routine GP appointments where we have the opportunity to ask key questions. Private foster carers do not hold Parental Responsibility. 

All possible cases of private fostering need to be referred to the Local Authority 

Private Fostering Team available 020 7525 1921 

video guide to private fostering 

CoramBaaf’s guide to private fostering 

Statutory guidance on national minimum standard for private fostering 

Private Fostering in Southwark information

It has been a statutory requirement since April 2008 that each Local Safeguarding Children Partnership (SCP), formerly Local Safeguarding Children Board (LSCB) must review deaths of children (under 18 years) ordinarily resident in the SCP area. These processes are outlined in the Children Act 2004 and Chapter 5 of the statutory guidance Working Together to Safeguard Children 

As part of this process GPs will be required to complete reporting form B which contributes to analysis of potential factors contributing to the death. 

Local contacts and Single Points of Access Lambeth/Southwark deaths: 

Helen Turnage  (, tel: 0207 525 3105) 

Further information is available on the Southwark Safeguarding Board Website alongside Government guidance 

Support for parents and families.

Child Death in Southwark – JSNA April 2019

Child Death Pathway for GPs in Lambeth and Southwark

Magnet Safety Alert Poster

Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy- Sleeping on a sofa with your baby increases the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) by up to 50 times ( 

Safer Sleep for Babies – A Guide for Parents  

As a cohort these children are not receiving the health offer from the school programme or the safeguarding element to school life e.g. sex and relationship programmes, immunisations. These families are just as likely, if not more, to have vulnerabilities such a significant parental mental health, substance misuse and domestic violence and abuse. Without the safeguarding aspect of school more responsibility falls to Primary Care.  

Practices are reminded to review registration forms to check if children registrations forms contain a question about school attended; this will help identify any children who are home educated 

Suggested code: Home-schooled [Snomed 302139001]  

 Southwark Pupil Tracking and Licensing Team  

Tel. 020 7525 0528/0428 

Please find presentation from GP safeguarding Forum 2017 below covering the various aspects to elective home education, including definitions, legal aspects and the 2017 Southwark picture.

Elective Home Education in Southwark – GP Forum – December 2017

Young carers are those aged from 5 to 18 who have a significant caring responsibility for a member of their family 

It is estimated that there are over 2000 young carers in Southwark, many of whom remain unknown to services. 

The 2014 Children and Families Act made it a statutory duty of the LA to offer a Young Carers assessment to all those who have been identified as having caring duties. 

There is far reaching impact of caring on children and young people: 

  • Young carers have statistically poorer educational outcomes than their peers 
  • They also have poorer mental health and high rates of anxiety 
  • They can become socially isolated, as they stay at home with the cared for parent 

Imago runs the Southwark Young Carer Service, referral form available on the Imago website.

GP practices are well placed to identify young carers in their direct work with parents and carers. 

Young Carers GP Forum – July 2021

Imago – Young Carers Referral Form

The LADO deals with allegations made against people working and volunteering with children in Southwark.  This can also include allegations in people’s private lives which can impact on a person’s suitability to work with children. The role was introduced following the Bichard Inquiry published in 2004.  

Further details in statutory  and local guidance and procedure including Chapter 2 of Working Together to Safeguarding Children, Chapter 2 of the London Children Protection Procedures and Southwark local authority website

Allegations can be made in relation to physical chastisement and restraint but can also relate to inappropriate relationships between members of staff and children or young people, for example 

  • Having a sexual relationship with a child under 18 if in a position of trust in respect of that child, even if consensual (see s16-19 Sexual Offences Act 2003); 
  • ‘Grooming’, i.e. meeting a child under 16 with intent to commit a relevant offence (see s15 Sexual Offences Act 2003); 
  • Other ‘grooming’ behaviour giving rise to concerns of a broader child protection nature e.g. inappropriate text / e-mail messages or images, gifts, socialising etc; 
  • Possession of indecent photographs. 

In addition, when there is an allegation that any person who works with children has behaved in a way in their personal life that raises safeguarding concerns: 

  • These concerns do not have to directly relate to a child but could, for example, include arrest for possession of a weapon; 
  • As a parent or carer, has become subject to child protection procedures; 
  • Is closely associated with someone in their personal lives (e.g. partner, member of the family or other household member) who may present a risk of harm to child/ren for whom the member of staff is responsible in their employment/volunteering. 

Types of disclosures GP may get: 

  • Historic allegations – an adult making a disclosure about childhood abuse eg. abuse suffered whilst in care 
  • Remember recent historic abuse from young adults could suggest the person the allegation is about is still working with children  
  • Parents/carers bringing a child to the GP because they are worried their child is being abused at nursery or school 
  • If you are working with a patient who works with children  
  • Worries about colleagues  

Contact Southwark’s LADO to discuss any potential cases for referral. 

Eva Simcock  0207 525 0689 / 07943 076608  

Allegations Against Adults Who Work or Volunteer with Children – The LADO role